For the thin woman or those with otherwise inadequate tummy tissue the breast may be reconstructed with tissue borrowed from the gluteal area. Skin, fat, and the tiny feeding blood vessels are collected without loss of underlying muscle tissue. The fatty tissue is removed from the excess in the upper hip providing a closure line that is concealed even in the most delicate of undergarments.

Perforator flaps represent the state of the art in breast reconstruction. Replacing the skin and soft tissue removed at mastectomy with soft, warm, living tissue is accomplished by borrowing skin and fatty tissue from the abdomen or hip. This is accomplished without sacrificing muscles and strength as compared to less sophisticated techniques.